What is GraphQL?


3 min read

GraphQL is a query language for reading and mutating data in APIs

By the end of this, you'll understand what GraphQL is, how it works and how's it different from REST. I will also provide some resources for further research. I'll try to be concise...

Let's start by explaining how REST works. And if you're familiar, you can jump to this section,


REST, or Representational State Transfer, is an architectural style for providing standards between computer systems on the web, making it easier for systems to communicate with each other. In other words, with REST, as with GraphQL, we are consuming an API. In the case of RESTful API, data entities live on various URLs on a server. When a request is received the API responds with the full data payload of that entity. Hence, there are two possible drawbacks here. First, we may need multiple entities at the same time in which case each request is under-fetching the data we want. Second, we may only want a small subset of a larger data entity in which case we need to over-fetch from the API.


So, we said that GraphQL is a query language for reading and mutating data in APIs. While in a RESTful API, data lives on multiple URLs on a server. In the case of GraphQL, the API has a single entry point (/graphql).

Now, let's imagine we have a team of 2, one Front End dev and one Back End dev. They are building a Koala managing website. In terms of GraphQL the perspective of the two devs, in a nutshell, looks like this:

  1. Front End Dev: Explores and requests the exact data they need (not like in the case of RESTful API)
  2. Back End Dev: Writes code to resolve that request

Back End work

Define a schema with all details needed about a Koala:

type Koala {
  id: ID!
  name: String!
  limbs: Int!
  diet: [Plant]
  fluffy: Boolean!
type Plant {
  id: ID!
  name: String!
  calories: Int!

! - means this is required. Koala is a custom object name. ID, String, Int, Boolean are data types. We can have a custom type as well, like Plant. If we write a type inside [ ], then it's an array.

Evey GraphQL API has a Query type. It's a main entry point for a consumer of the API. getKoalas returns all Koalas, while getKoala returns a single one.

type Query {
  getKoalas: [Koala]
  getKoala(koalaId: ID!): Koala

To mutate data, implement the Mutation type.

type Mutation {
  createKoala(name: String!, limbs: Int!, fluffy: Boolean!, 
    plant: { name: String!, calories: Int!}): Koala
  deleteKoala(koalaId: ID!): String

Afterwards, define the code to resolve getKoalas, createKoala and others in any programming language.

Front End work

Query (fetch) data by describing it with a syntax that mirrors its return shape in JSON. Often, with React, you'd be using something like React Query or Apollo GraphQL.

In the case of Apollo GraphQL, it will look something like this:


 const { data: { getKoala } = {} } = useQuery(FETCH_KOALA_QUERY, {
    variables: {



import gql from 'graphql-tag';

const FETCH_POST_QUERY = gql`
  query($koalaId: ID!) {
    getKoala(koalaId: $koalaId) {
      diet {


And this is the pattern that you'll use for the rest of the fetching part of the code.


As I tried to be concise, I'll leave you with some resource for further research. Have fun, GraphQL is awesome!

Additionally, you can check out my MERNG stack side project w/ Apollo GraphQL and TailWindCSS: -server -client

##Thank You!

I hope you find this post useful! Any feedback is greatly appreciated!

Cheers, Dalibor